We have listed
a variety of resources for assessment and evaluation. While some of these
listings directly relate to the service-learning field, some are more
general in nature. If you are interested in assessment and evaluation
resources for K-12 programs, please visit the National Service-Learning
Clearinghouse at http://www.nicsl.coled.umn.edu/
Evaluation and Assessment Tools
Abstract: A comprehensive guide to assist faculty, students, institutional
leaders and community partners in understanding and assessing the impact
of community based learning. It includes an overview of assessment measures,
guides for the administration of each measure, and suggestions for how
to use assessment data to further improve teaching and learning. Currently
unavailable online because of revision but is expected to be available
Abstract: RMC research, a partner in W.K. Kellogg Foundation's Learning
in Deed Initiative, administers this website which provides assessments
and research tools designed to assist those who have an interest in studying
the effectiveness of youth development programs (such as service-learning)
and related educational activities. CART users can find a tool that is
appropriate for their interests or they can locate an existing tool to
guide their development of an instrument better suited to their research
Assessing Internal and External Outcomes of Service-Learning Collaborations.
Abstract: A resource that provides critical insights from community college
and university faculty for enhancing and improving service-learning programs.
From institutional self-assessments to assessing the community impact,
this sourcebook provides the tools necessary to improve your service-learning
program. ($20) Availability: Campus Compact National Center for Community
Colleges, 145 N. Centennial Way, Suite 108, Mesa Arizona 85201.
Abstract: This packet contains information on assessing service-learning
programs and includes forms and questionnaires for faculty, students,
and agencies. Contains examples from other institutions as well as their
own forms. Available for purchase at the Center for Service-Learning at
Brevard Community College (407-632-1111, ext. 62410). Order forms can
be accessed through the website.
Abstract: This website acts as a guide to service-learning and engaging
citizens by providing service-learning and civic education resources and
toolkits. There are toolkits for introductory, intermediate and advanced
levels which also include articles and instruments for assessment.
Community College: Service-Learning Web
Abstract: This website contains information on service-learning including
benefits, how to get started, creating timelines, and developing learning
plans. Faculty, students and agencies can access examples of forms, including
Art and Science of Classroom Assessment: The Missing Part of Pedagogy
Authors: Brookhart, Susan M.
Availability: ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, v.27, n. 1.
Abstract: This volume contains a description of effective assessment of
students' achievement in college and university classes. Definitions of
terms found in assessment are provided and examples of use are shown.
The volume provides insights into three areas challenging the academy:
professional standards of assessment, outcomes assessment and grade inflation.
The book also summarizes the literature on classroom assessment in higher
education, explains methods of assessment, delineates the development
of good assessment instruments and scoring procedures, reviews grading
strategies and provides several models for achieving the goal of quality
classroom assessment and resources for faculty to improve assessment skills.
in Higher Education: Issues of access, quality, student development and
public policy: a festschrift in honor of Warren W. Willingham.
Authors: Messick, Samuel J., ed.
Availability: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 10 Industrial Ave.,
Mahwah, NJ 07430
Abstract: This volume commemorates the career contributions to research
on higher education of Warren W. Willingham. The volume contains the proceedings
of a conference held in his honor at Educational Testing Service in March
1995. Willingham's work addresses most of the major issues that occupied
higher education over the past half century. The volume contains chapters
that address the following issues: enhancing student access, development
and success in higher education; transforming admissions testing to meet
expanding educational needs; resolving the politics of accountability
by assessing quality outcomes of higher education; accommodating human
diversity with equity and fairness; and, capitalizing on computer and
audiovisual technology to prepare students for a technology-dominated
Well by Doing Good: A Study of the Effects of a Service-Learning Experience
on Student Success. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.
Authors: Berson, Judith S; Younkin, William F.
Availability: ERIC No. ED427568
Abstract: This study explores the effects of service-learning on student
success in college. The study consisted of 286 students enrolled in six
paired community college courses in various disciplines. One section of
each pair was taught using traditional subject matter and course material,
while the other section of each pair was required to participate in a
20 hour service-learning activity in addition to the regular course curriculum.
The results indicated that students who participated in the sections with
a service-learning requirement achieved higher final course grades and
reported greater satisfaction with the course.
Education and Service: The HPSISN Experience.
of Interprofessional Care 12 (August 1998): 257-272.
Abstract: An article describing HPSISN evaluation methodology and general
Community-University Partnerships for Mutual Learning.
Authors: S.B. Gelmon, B.A. Holland, S.D. Seifer, A. Shinnamon and K. Connors.
Availability: Michigan Journal of Community Service-Learning 5 (Fall 1998):
97-107. Abstract: An article from HPSISN evaluation specifically on evaluation
of community-university partnerships and findings.
, or by calling 415-476-7081.
Abstract: Report of the evaluation of a three year, 20 site national demonstration
program (HPSISN) on integrating service-learning into health professions
education (single disciplines and interdisciplinary).
Perceptions of Pre-service Teachers
Authors: McMahon, Rebecca.
Availability: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational
Research Association, New Orleans, LA, November 4-6, 1998).
ERIC No. ED 431678
Abstract: A study used qualitative data for gaining insight into preservice
teachers' experiences and perceptions related to service-learning. Subjects
were undergraduate students enrolled in two sections of an early childhood
course. Data analysis revealed a favorable perspective toward service-learning.
Academic benefits cited ranged from clarifying an individual's choice
of major to observing or applying information present in university courses.
Additionally, participants communicated learning outcomes in regard to
each individual, the community, and children.
are Students Learning? Assessing Service-Learning and the Curriculum
Authors: Blash Cumbo, Kathryn; Jennifer A. Vadeboncouer.
Availability: American Educational Research Association; 1230 17th Street,
NW, Washington, DC 20036-3078; Telephone: 202-223-9485.
Abstract: This paper explores the meaning of learning in service by explicating
how service-learning links to current standards based reform agendas and
how the academic learning associated with service-learning can be assessed
by teachers, professors, and community agency personnel. Cumbo and Vadeboncoeur
seek to show how service-learning can help produce a system of learning,
teaching, and assessment that embraces democratic ideals, addresses real
world issues, evaluates learning and teaching in authentic ways, and is
based on high academic standards.
Outcomes of Service-Learning Courses at a Parochial College
Authors: Fenzel, L. Mickey; Leary, Timothy P.
Availability: ERIC: ED410281
Abstract: Many colleges and universities are using a service-learning
paradigm to structure service-learning experiences for their students
to reinforce and enhance the understanding of course material. Two studies
were undertaken at a parochial college to address the benefits to students
who perform service as part of their curriculum studies. Results demonstrate
the difficulties of demonstrating benefits of service-learning, but show
the using comparison groups is a useful approach.
Model for Service-Learning: Comprehensive Case Studies of Impact on Faculty,
Students, Community, and Institution
Authors: Driscoll, Amy; Barbara Holland, Barbara.
Availability: Michigan Journal of Community Service-Learning. Fall 1996.
Article 7, p.66-71;
Abstract: A comprehensive case study model of assessment developed at
Portland State University responds to the need to measure the impact of
service-learning on four constituencies (student, faculty, community,
and institution). The case studies blend quantitative and qualitative
measures in order to determine the most effective and practical tools
to measure the impact of service-learning impact and to provide feedback
for continuous improvement of practice. Insights from the design process
and preliminary results have potential value for institutions with similar
agendas for service-learning and community partnerships.
Assessment of Student Learning: Outcomes Attributed to Service-Learning
and Evidence of Changes in Faculty Attitudes About Experiential Education
Author: Hesser, Garry.
Availability: Michigan Journal of Community Service-Learning, v2 p33-42
Abstract: Results of a survey of 48 college faculty from diverse disciplines
and institutions support the hypothesis that faculty feel that both liberal
arts and disciplinary learning derive from field study and service-learning,
suggesting a shift in faculty attitudes about service-learning from skeptical
to affirming. It is proposed that experiential learning and reflective
practice have become established in higher education.
Effectiveness of the Assessment of Learning Outcomes of Students in Experiential
Authors: Davis, Donald Raymond.
Availability: Dissertation, Southern Illinois University
Abstract: This study traced the development of the assessment of experiential
learning from 1974 to 1986 and identified the most effective tools and
techniques used to measure the learning outcomes of students in experiential
learning programs. The study asked 206 instructors and administrators
of experiential learning about their program implementation data, purpose
of assessment activities, types of assessment tools and the effectiveness
of those assessment tools. Results indicate that written assessment was
deemed the most effective tool for experiential education. Program improvement
remains as a prime purpose of assessment and evaluation in experiential
and Scoring Guide of the Experiential Education Evaluation Project.
Authors: Conrad, Dan and Hedin, Diane.
Availablility: National Service-Learning Clearinghouse, University of
Minnesota, 1954 Buford Ave., Room 460, VoTech Building, St. Paul, MN 55108,
Abstract: As a result of the Experiential Education Evaluation project,
this publication identified instruments used to measure and assesses experiential
learning programs. The following information is given for each instrument:
rationale for its inclusion in the study; precise issues or outcomes designed
to measure validity and reliability data; and directions on how to score.
Descriptions of assessment tools are organized according to four categories:
instruments on social development; instruments on psychological development;
instruments on intellectual development and instruments on differential
of Good Practice in Assessing Experiential Learning.
Authors: Willingham, Warren H..
Availability: ERIC ED. 148840
Abstract: The Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning project
(CAEL) has developed general principles for assessment of prior experiential
learning which can be adapted for local circumstances and individual learning.
An overview of the basic principles of good assessment practice, as represented
in current CAEL publications is provided. Procedural guidelines are presented,
with references to fuller discussion in other CAEL reports.
for Institutionalizing Evaluation: Revisited.
Authors: Stufflebeam, Daniel.
Abstract: Every service organization needs to conduct sound evaluations
to identify and address constituents needs, improve services, make defensible
personnel decisions, effectively serve clients, and earn client confidence.
This article posits that an organization can best meet its evaluation
needs by institutionalizing a sound unified evaluation system. While the
article focuses on educational organizations, its message applies to the
full range of organizations dedicated to serving clients. To assist organizations
to define one general approach to program, client, and personnel evaluation,
the article presents two checklists. The first defines 18 goals of a sound,
unified evaluation system. The second checklist defines 10 components
of a fully functional evaluation system. Available: The paper may be purchased
by sending a check or money order for US$5 to The Evaluation Center, 401B
Ellsworth Hall, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5178.
The organizations listed and linked to on the following pages are general
in nature and may or may not include resources that are specific to service-learning
and higher education
American Association for Higher Education Assessment
One Dupont Circle NW, Suite 360, Washington, DC 20036
AAHE works to improve higher education assessment practices and assist
colleges in using assessment techniques to improve students learning.
It provides information on recently developed assessment techniques and
commissioned papers on higher education assessment. The Forum also offers
consulting and networking services.
Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE)
ASHE is a scholarly society with about 1,200 members dedicated to higher
education as a field of study. The Association promotes collaboration
among its members and others engaged in the study of higher education
through research, conferences, and publications, including its highly
regarded journal, The Review of Higher Education.
for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) Network on Authentic
Pacific Educational Laboratory, Suite 1409, 1164 Bishop Street, Honolulu,
ASCD sponsors special interest groups called networks to help curriculum
developers and supervisors exchange ideas, solve problems, and collaborate
on issues of mutual concern.
Terry Pickeral, 2622 Lakeridge Lane, Bellingham, WA 98226;
CEC's website includes overview, rationale, challenges, and methods to
assess the impact of service-learning on students, teachers, schools,
and community. It also includes models for assessing program impact and
Clearinghouse for Higher Education Assessment Instruments
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 212 Claxton Education Building, Knoxville,
TN 37996; Phone: 615-974-3748
Gathers information on standardized and faculty-developed instruments
and methods to assess the outcomes of higher education. The clearinghouse
provides collections of assessment instruments on student services/student
development, institutional effectiveness, basic skills and general education,
affective assessment, portfolio assessment, and assessment instruments
in the major.
ERIC Clearinghouses on Assessment and Evaluation
The Catholic University of America, 209 O'Boyle Hall, Washington, DC 20064-3893;
Acquires, selects, and abstracts education information on testing and
evaluation, including measurement devices, research design, and methodology.
Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
403 South Allen Street, Suite 104, State College, Pennsylvania, 16801;
814-865-5917, fax: 814-865-3683.
Originally funded from the U. S. Department of Education's OERI, The National
Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment (NCTLA) is
a research, development, and dissemination center that seeks to discover
what facilitates student learning. NCTLA comprises faculty, administrators,
and researchers at Penn State, the University of Illinois at Chicago,
Syracuse University, Northwestern University, Arizona State University,
and the University of Southern California. Their web site contains resource
information and assessment institute conference information.
Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL)
101 South Main Street, Portland, OR 97204-3297 Phone: 503-275-9500
Operates the Center for Applied Performance Testing, which exists to help
schools achieve better assessment of student outcomes. NWREL also maintains
a collection of tests and offers a video series on assessment for teachers
NWREL has an assessment and evaluation program that translates for educators
and community leaders the best research into practical, user-friendly
The Learn & Serve America National Service-Learning
Clearinghouse at ETR Associates http://www.servicelearning.org)
houses a searchable database, with thousands of abstracted articles on
service-learning. Here, we present a few of the more well-known works,
and introduce work underway at the Higher Education Research Institute
(which houses this part of the Clearinghouse).
* Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) Publications
* How Service-Learning Affects Students (executive summary)
* 2000 Freshman Survey Results
* Faculty Participation in Service-Learning
* Service-Learning Needs Assessment (1999 Clearinghouse Assessment)
* Bibliography of related HERI research * Higher Education Service-Learning
Research Publication* The Source Newsletters (Quarterly newsletters produced
by The Service Learning Clearinghouse Project during 1999 and 2000).
* Newsletter Fall 1999
* Newsletter Winter 2000
* Newsletter Spring 2000
* Newsletter Summer 2000
* Newsletter Fall 2000
Education Research Institute (HERI) Research
How Service-Learning Affects Students
The two major goals of this study were to explore the comparative effects
of service- learning and community service on the cognitive and affective
development of college undergraduates, and to enhance our understanding
of how learning is enhanced by service. 2000 Freshman Survey Results
Service-Learning Needs Assessment (1999 Clearinghouse Assessment)
In March 1999, the UCLA Service-Learning Clearinghouse Project completed
a three-month study of Learn and Serve American higher education grantees
and subgrantees. There were approximately 70 respondents to the electronic
survey. Click on the links below to view the survey instrument or to read
a brief description of the institutional and respondent.
* Survey Instrument
* Institutional and Respondent Profiles
* Survey Results
Related to Service-Learning
Antonio, A. L., Astin, H. S., and Cress, C. M. (2000). "Community
in higher education: A look at the nation's faculty." Review of Higher
Education, 23, (4) 373-398.
Astin, A. W. (1975). Preventing students from dropping out. San
Astin, A. W. (1977). Four critical years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Astin, A. W. (1984). "Student involvement: A development theory for
higher education". Journal College Student Personnel 25, 297-308.
Astin, A. W. (1991). Assessment for excellence: The philosophy and practice
of assessment and evaluation in higher education. New York: Macmillan/Onyx.
Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Astin, A. W. (1996). "The role of service in higher education".
About Campus, 1 (1), 14-19.
Astin, A. W. and Ikeda, E. K. (2000). "Institutional commitment to
service: An analysis of Campus Compact membership." Unpublished manuscript,
Higher Education Research Institute.
Astin, A. W. and Sax, L. J. (1998). "How undergraduates are affected
by service participation". Journal of College Student Development
39 (3), 251-263.
Astin, A. W., Sax, L. J., and Avalos, J. (1999). "Long-term effects
of volunteerism during the undergraduate years." The Review
of Higher Education 22 (2), 187-202.
Astin, H. S., Antonio, A. L., Cress, C. M., and Astin, A. W. (1996).
Faculty involvement in community service. Los Angeles: Higher Education
Research Institute, UCLA. Report for RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.
Ikeda, E.K. (1999). How does service enhance learning? Towards an understanding
of the process. Unpublished Dissertation.
Sax, L. J. and Astin, A. W. (1997). "The benefits of service: Evidence
from undergraduates". Educational Record 78: 25-32.
Sax, L. J., Astin, A. W., and Astin, H. S. (1996). What were LSAHE impacts
on student volunteers? Chapter in Evaluation of Learn and Serve America,
Higher Education: First Year Report. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Higher Education Service-Learning Research Publications
Michigan Journal of Community Service-Learning
The MJCSL is refereed journal that publishes articles related to service-learning
theory, pedagogy and practice.
Service and Learning in Higher Education: Summary Report. 1999 RAND Report
This research report chronicles the findings of a three-year evaluation
of federally funded service-learning programs.
Eyler, J. S. & Giles, D. E. (1999). Where's the Learning in Service-Learning?
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods,
this is a comprehensive study seeking to understand the kinds of learning
facilitated by service- learning.
Clarke, J.S., Ellett, C.D., Bateman, J.M., & Rugutt, J.K. (1996).
Faculty receptivity resistance to change, personal and organizational
efficacy, decision deprivation and effectiveness in research I universities.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting for the Study of Higher Education,
Memphis TN. (ERIC No. ED 402 846).
Institutional Support for Service-Learning.
Authors: Serow, Robert C. and others
Availability Journal of Research and Development in Education; v29 n4
p220-25 Sum 1996
ERIC NO: EJ535020
Abstract: This study identified factors associated with support for service-learning
(SL) among institutions of higher education. Surveys of SL programs in
North Carolina indicated that institutionalization of SL was closely associated
with such institutional characteristics as degree of faculty involvement
and emphasis on academic goals in SL courses.
Service-Learning and Student Volunteerism: Reflections on Institutional
Author: Ward, Kelly
Availability Michigan Journal of Community Service-Learning; v3 p55-65,
ERIC NO: EJ552444
Abstract: A study examined how five colleges and universities with stated
commitments to public service incorporate volunteerism and service-learning
into organizational structures. Results suggest that institutions that
make centralized decisions and share governance are more apt to institutionalize
service-learning than are more loosely coupled systems. Faculty participation,
integration of service-learning into curriculum, presidential support,
and adequate funding are key elements.
Problems, Politics, And Possibilities of a Progressive Approach to Service-Learning
in a Community College: A Case Study.
Author: Kevin Burr
Available: Journal of Industrial Teacher Education v36 n3, Spr 1999.
Abstract: This study revealed that progressive service-learning concepts
can be ideally utilized in a community college environment. These learning
methods lend themselves most specifically to technical career options
in community colleges and are in line with the emphasis in the community
college mission statement that focuses on career preparation and community
Bringle, R.G., & Hatcher, J.A. (1996). "Implementing service-learning
in higher education". Journal of Higher Education, 67: 221-239.
Bringle, R. G., & Hatcher, J. A. (2000). "Institutionalization
of service-learning in higher education". Journal of Higher Education,