physiology chapter notes
Introduction Chapter 1 1. Anatomy: structure Physiology: function and mechanics 2. Homeostasis: state of maintaining an internal balance 3. Set point: determined by the control center; level of the range of maintenance; determines appropriate response 4. Negative feedback loop: response made to re-establish the set point 5. Positive feedback: produces a cascade effect and accelerates the effect Chemistry Chapter 2 1. Matter: occupies space and has weight; does not vary 2. Element: substances that cannot be broken down further into simpler substances 3. Periodic Table: chart of the elements displayed according to their characteristic properties 4. Atom: smallest unit of an element 5. Parts of an atom: nucleus (protons with positive charge; neutrons with zero charge) and electrons with negative charge. 6. Symbol: chemical shorthand for naming each element Atomic number: number of protons in an atom of an element; determines the properties of that element. Atomic mass: weight of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Isotope: atoms with same atomic number with different t atomic weights 7. Electron orbitals: path of electrons around the nucleus; orbital limits for electrons: 2, 1st shell, 8, second shell, 8, 3rd shell. Valence electrons: those in the outermost shell; most reactive Chemical reactions: normally involve just the valence electrons 8. Molecules: 2 or more atoms combined; may be for the same element or different elements 9. Bonding patterns: Covalent: (non-polar) equal sharing of electrons between atoms Polar covalent: an equal sharing of atoms; Ionic: transfer of electrons from one atom to another; charge created Hydrogen: attraction between atoms of different molecules (intramolecular bond) Van der Waals: fluctuation of charges in large nonpolar molecules causing weak attractions between molecules 10. Anions: ions that gain electrons Cations: ions that lose electons Example NaCl 11. Chemical equation: reactants on left, products on right, used with chemical symbols. Example: 6CO2 +6H20± C6 H12 O6 +6 O2 Chemical equilibrium: chemical reactions in proceed in both directions 12. Properties of water: Adhesion: ability of water to form bonds with many polar substances Example: water coats the inside of a glass Cohesion: ability of water to form hydrogen bonds with itself: Example: water beading up on a waxed car 13. Aqueous solution: solution in which water is the solvent. 14. Solute: the material being dissolved Solvent: the liquid that the solute is dissolving in 15. Diffusion: movement of molecules from higher concentration to a lower concentration. Osmosis: diffusion of water through a semi permeable membrane 16. Concentration gradient: diffusion pathway from high to low concentration areas 17. Hydrophobic : nonpolar molecules do not mix with polar molecules (oil and water; Hydrophilic: polar molecules mixing with other polar compounds; materials dissolving in water 18. Acid: molecules producing H+ ions Base: molecules producing OH – ions 19. pH: measure of the H+ ion content in solution; 7 is neutral ; below 7 is acidic and above is basic 20. Buffer system: weak acids and bases can absorb or release H+ ions. Example: carbonic acid (H2 CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 21. Organic chemistry: deals with carbon containing compounds 22. Functional groups: a. Alcohol: OH group; polar; forms hydrogen bonds b. Amino: NH2 group; acts as a base; polar; forms hydrogen bonds; forms proteins c. Carbonyl: CHO group; an aldehyde; used to produce sugars d. Carboxyl: COOH group; organic acid 23. Carbohydrates: sugars and starches; CH2O; energy storage 24. Types of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides: simple sugars with 5 or 6 carbons; (glucose, fructose, galactose.) isomers; C6H12O6 Disaccharides: C12H22O11; double sugars; formed by combining 2 Monsaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose) Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) (C6H10O5)nth; starch, celllose; polymers; 25. Dehydration synthesis: occurs when joining two monomers and produces a molecule of H2O. Hydrolysis: breakdown of large polymer into monomers; digestion; water added to reaction 26. Monomer: glucose, amino acid Polymer: starch, cellulose, protein 27. Lipids: have C, H, and O but fewer oxygen atoms than carbohydrates; Dissolve in organic solvents but not in water Example: fats and oils 28. Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds; solid at room temperature Unsaturated fatty acids: have at least one double bond; liquid at room temperature 29. Trigylceride: 3 fatty acids bonded to a molecule of glycerol Glycerol: 3 carbon alcohol found in a molecule of fat 30. Sterols: lipids with 4 carbon rings; source of hormones; example: Cholesterol 31. Protein formation: polymers of amino acids combined by dehydration Synthesis 32. Amino acid structure: amino group, carboxyl group, central carbon and an R group 33. Levels of protein organization: Primary structure: specific sequence of amino acids Secondary structure: folding of the amino cid chain due to hydrogen bonds between amino acids Tertiary structure: additional folding due to interactions of R groups or disulfide bonds Quaternary structure: interactions of proteins from more than one polypeptide chain 34. Denaturation: unfolding of protein from excess heat or change in pH 35. Enzyme: speed up chemical reactions; substrate combines with enzyme to form an end product.