- Plasma: straw colored liquid portion of the blood; consists of water and dissolved
Formed elements: include the cells and fragments of cells suspended in the blood.
- solutes: major solute is Na+ but other ions are present; organic molecules
(glucose, amino acids, fats, hormones, enzymes)
- Plasma proteins: 3 types travel in the blood
(1). Albumins: made in the liver and provide osmotic pressure allowing
fluid to enter the capillaries
(2). Globulins: alpha globulins and beta globulins are made by liver and
They transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins; gamma globulins are
- Cell types:
- Erythrocytes: biconcave discs having no nuclei or mitochondria;
Specialized to transport oxygen; filled with hemoglobin that binds
oxygen; live span= 120 days; old RBC’s removed by phagocytic cells
in liver and spleen.
- leukocytes: found within the immune system; each has a different function
in fighting pathogens:
-Neutrophils: 50-70% of WBC’s (polymorphonuclear leukocytes)
Active phagocytes; attack bacteria, fungi. Causes lysis.
-. Eosinophils: 2-4 % of WBC’s; fights parasitic worms; lessens
effect of allergies
-. Basophils: rarest WBC’s; contain histamine (vasodilator)
-lymphocytes: 25% of WBC’s; become T and B lymphocytes
-Monocytes: largest leukocytes: become macrophages; phagocytes;
- Erythopoiesis: formation of red blood cells occurring in myeloid tissue; red bone
marrow with stem cells (erythroblasts) produce cells that will become RBC’s;
when stem cells divide. One daughter cell→RBC, the other remains a stem cell;
- Erythropoietin: hormone from the kidney; binds to erythroblasts and stimulates them to divide.
- Blood antigens: protein markers on the surface of red blood cells; help immune
system tell self from non-self; antibodies can bind to antigens and cause the cells
- Agglutinogen: an individuals red blood cell antigen.
- Agglutinins: preformed antibodies that attack any foreign blood present
- ABO system: 2 proteins A and B that may be present on the RBC surface; lack
of both proteins= blood type O. The four major groups: A, B, AB, and O.
- Antibodies: Type A antigens have antibody B
Type B antigens have antibody A
Type AB has neither
Type O has both
- Rh factor: (from Rhesus monkeys); another protein associated with the RBCs.
having the Rh factor= Rh+; if absent= Rh-.
- Erythroblastosis fetalis: Rh antibody reaction against the fetus when the developing baby is Rh+ and mother is Rh-; occurs during 2nd pregnancy and only
if there is a break in placental wall.
- Platelets (thrombocytes) : initiate the reaction
- Thromboplastin: found in platelets
- Prothrombin: inactive blood protein
- Thrombin: active blood coagulant
- Fibrinogen: inactive blood protein
- Fibrin: protein strands that form part of blood clot
- ADP: aggregating agent; attracts additional platelets to assist in sealing broken
or damaged blood vessels.
Serotonin: stimulates vasoconstriction
Thromboxane A2: aggregation and vasoconstriction
- Thromboplastin: released from the platelets when they are cut or damaged
Prothrombin: interacts with thromboplastin to form thrombin
Thrombin: changes fibrinogen into fibrin.
Vitamin K: required for making 4 procoagulants from the liver
Calcium: needed to make procoagulants
- Clot dissolution: repair of the damaged blood vessel will cause the activation
of plasminogen to plasmin; plasmin will cut the fibrin fibers causing clot
- Fibrinolysis: see #16 above
- Bicarbonate: used as a buffer; pH of blood must remain within narrow range of
Values (7.35-7.45); body uses weak acids/bases that can absorb H+ at low pH
and give up H+ at high pH; main buffer is bicarbonate:
CO2 + H2O →H2CO3
H2CO3→H+ + HCO3-
HCO3- + H+ →H2CO3
- a. Acidosis: when pH drops below 7.35: H+ builds up in blood
b. Respiratory acidosis: hypoventilation = ↑of plasma CO2→carbonic acid;
emphysema can cause this (retention of CO2)
c. Metabolic acidosis: ↑metabolic acids (ketones from diabetes), or loss of
bicarbonates from pancreatic juice in diarrhea.; may be caused by excess
ingestion of alcohol (forms acetic acid); also ↑lactic acid.
- Alkalosis: when pH rises above 7.45; OH+ ions begin to build up and proteins
in tissue are dissolved.
- Respiratory alkalosis: hyperventilation; ↓CO2 levels in blood and removal of
H+ ions; high altitude exercise;
Metabolic alkalosis: ↑HCO3- ; vomiting (loss of H+ in stomach requiresreplacement of H+ ions)* See Chart on p. 1054